This site concerns Amelanchier, a member of the Rosaceae (rose) family. The purpose of this site is to present information about the systematics and evolution of these attractive small trees and shrubs, which are commonly called shadbushes, serviceberries, juneberries, sugarplums, and numerous other common names.
Amelanchier grows primarily in early successional habitats of the North Temperate Zone. The genus is most diverse taxomically in North America, especially in the northern United States and southern Canada, and is native to every state of the United States except Hawaii. These plants are valued horticulturally, and their fruits are important to wildlife. The systematics (taxonomy) of shadbushes has long perplexed botanists, horticulturalists, and others, as suggested by the range in number of species recognized in the genus from 6 to 33 in two recent publications (Landry 1975, Phipps et al. 1991; see references on Systematics page). A major source of complexity comes from the occurrence of apomixis (asexual seed production), polyploidy, and hybridization (see Evolution page).
Much of the systematics portion of this website is derived from the treatment of Amelanchier in the Flora of North America, and we thank our coauthors, Alison Dibble and Chris Frye, for their contributions to this treatment (see full citation of this reference below) and Luc Brouillet, editor for this FNA volume, for his support and guidance during the preparation of this treatment. For many contributions during field and laboratory work on Amelanchier, we are indebted to Bruce Baldwin, Scott Bergquist, Margaret Campbell, Alison Dibble, Tim Dickinson, Michael Donoghue, Torsten Eriksson, Chris Frye, Arthur Gilman, Craig Greene, Arthur Haines, Bill Halteman, Jean Higgins, Fay Hyland, Dick Neubauer, Camilla Shannon, Tom Vining, Jill Weber, David Werier, Marty Wojciechowski, and Wes Wright. We thank the Biology New Media Lab of the University of Maine for help in establishing this website and the National Science Foundation as well as the Maine Agriculture and Forestry Experiment Station for financial support of some of the research represented at this site.
Publications on Rosaceae involving the Campbell lab: Names with an asterisk (*) are current or former students or postdocs in the Campbell lab.
Publications on Amelanchier
Campbell, C.S. 1999. The evolutionary role of hybridization in agamic complexes, with special emphasis on Amelanchier (Rosaceae). In L.W.D. van Raamsdonk & J.C.M. den Nijs (eds.). Plant evolution in man-made habitats. Proceedings of the VIIth International Symposium of the International Organization of Plant Biosystematists. pdf
Campbell, C.S., L.A. Alice*, and W.A. Wright. 1999. Comparisons of within-population genetic variation in sexual and agamospermous Amelanchier (Rosaceae) using RAPD markers. Plant Systematics and Evolution 215:157-167. pdf
Campbell, C.S., A.C. Dibble*, C.T. Frye, and M.B. Burgess*. 2008 (Accepted for publication). Amelanchier in FNA Editorial Committee, Flora of North America volume 9. Magnoliophyta: Rosidae (in part): Rosales (in part). Oxford University Press, New York.
Campbell, C.S., C.W. Greene, and S.E. Bergquist*. 1987. Apomixis and sexuality in three species of Amelanchier, shadbush (Rosaceae, Maloideae). American Journal of Botany 74:321-328. pdf
Campbell, C.S., C.W. Greene, B.F. Neubauer, & J.M. Higgins*. 1985. Apomixis in Amelanchier laevis, Shadbush (Rosaceae, Maloideae). American Journal of Botany 72:1397-1403. pdf
Campbell, C.S., M.F. Wojciechowski, B G. Baldwin, L.A. Alice*, and M.J. Donoghue. 1997. Persistent nuclear ribosomal DNA sequence polymorphism in the Amelanchier (Rosaceae) agamic complex. Molecular Biology and Evolution 14:81-90. pdf
Campbell, C.S. and W.A. Wright. 1996. Apomixis, hybridization, and taxonomic complexity in northeastern North American Amelanchier (Rosaceae). Folia Geobotancia & Phytotaxonomica 31:345-354. pdf
Campbell, C.S., W.A. Wright, T.F. Vining*, and W. A. Halteman. 1997. Morphological variation in sexual and agamospermous Amelanchier (Rosaceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 75:1166-1173. pdf
Dibble*, A.C. and C. S. Campbell. 1995. Distribution and conservation of nantucket shadbush (Rosaceae). Rhodora 97:339-349.
Dibble*, A. C., F. A. Drummond, and W. E. LaBerge. 1997. Floral syndrome in Amelanchier nantucketensis (Rosaceae) I. Floral density, bee activity, and characterization of andropetaly. Canad. J. Bot. 75: 1851–1859.pdf
Dibble*, A.C. and F.A. Drummond. 1997. Floral syndrome in Amelanchier nantucketensis (Rosaceae). II. Bee preference and diversity associated with andropetaly. Can. J. Bot. 75: 1860–1867.pdf
Dibble*, A.C., W.A. Wright, C.W. Greene, and C.S. Campbell. 1998. Quantitative morphology of the Amelanchier agamic complex (Rosaceae) at a Maine site. Systematic Botany 23:31-40. pdf
Weber*, J.E. and C.S. Campbell. 1989. Breeding systems in a hybrid of a sexual and an apomictic Amelanchier, shadbush (Rosaceae, Maloideae). American Journal of Botany 76:341-347. pdf
Publications on subtribe Pyrineae (formerly subfamily Maloideae)
Campbell, C. S. 2008a (Accepted for publication). Malacomeles in FNA Editorial Committee, Flora of North America volume 9. Magnoliophyta: Rosidae (in part): Rosales (in part). Oxford University Press, New York.
Campbell, C. S. 2008b. (Accepted for publication). Peraphyllum in FNA Editorial Committee, Flora of North America volume 9. Magnoliophyta: Rosidae (in part): Rosales (in part). Oxford University Press, New York.
Campbell, C.S. and T.A. Dickinson. 1990. Apomixis, patterns of morphological variation, and species concepts in subf. Maloideae (Rosaceae). Syst. Bot. 15:124-135. pdf
Campbell, C.S., M.J. Donoghue, B.G. Baldwin and M.F. Wojciechowski. 1995. Phylogenetic relationships in Maloideae (Rosaceae): Evidence from sequences of the internal transcribed spacer of nuclear ribosomal DNA and its congruence with morphology. Amer. J. Bot. 82:903-918. pdf
Campbell, C.S., C.W. Greene and T.A. Dickinson. 1991. Reproductive biology in the Maloideae (Rosaceae). Syst. Bot. 16:333-349. pdf
Campbell, C.S., R.C. Evans*, D.R. Morgan, T.A. Dickinson and M.P. Arsenault*. 2007. Phylogeny of Pyrinae (Rosaceae): Limited resolution of a complex evolutionary history. Pl. Syst. Evol. 266:119-145. pdf
Dickinson, T.A. and C.S. Campbell. 1991. Population structure in the Maloideae (Rosaceae). Systematic Botany 16:350-362. pdf
Evans*, R.C. and C.S. Campbell. 2002. The Origin of the apple subfamily (Rosaceae: Maloideae) is clarified by DNA sequence data from duplicated GBSSI Genes. American Journal of Botany 89:1478-1484. pdf
Publications on groups outside subtribe Pyrineae (formerly subf. Maloideae)
Alice*, L.A. and C.S. Campbell. 1999. Phylogeny of Rubus (Rosaceae) based on nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer sequences. American Journal of Botany 86:81-97. pdf
Alice*, L.A., T. Eriksson, B. Eriksen, and C.S. Campbell. 2001. Hybridization and gene flow between distantly related species of Rubus (Rosaceae): Evidence from nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region sequences. Systematic Botany 26:769-778. pdf
Evans*, R.C., L.A. Alice*, C. S. Campbell, E.A. Kellogg, and T.A. Dickinson. 2000. The granule-bound starch synthase (GBSSI) gene in Rosaceae: multiple putative loci and phylogenetic utility. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 17:388-400. pdf
Potter, D., T. Eriksson, R. Evans*, S.-H. Oh, and J. Smedmark, D. Morgan, M. Kerr, K. Robertson, M. Arsenault*, and C. Campbell. 2007. Phylogeny and classification of Rosaceae. Plant Systematics and Evolution 266:5-43. pdf
Smedmark, J. E. E., T. Eriksson, R.C. Evans*, and C.S. Campbell. 2003. Ancient Allopolyploid Speciation in Geinae (Rosaceae): Evidence from Nuclear Granule-Bound Starch Synthase (GBSSI) Gene Sequences. Syst. Biol. 52: 374-385. pdf
Wissemann, V. and C.S. Campbell. 2007. Introduction to the 2005 IBC symposium papers on the evolution of Rosaceae. Plant Systematics and Evolution 266:1-3.pdf